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Pablo Picasso
Nationality: 
spanish
Gender: 
Male
Birth Date: 
1881
Birth Place: 
Malaga, Spain
Death Date: 
1973
Death Place: 
Mougins, France
Enormous body of work includes painting, sculpture, works on paper, ceramics, and poetry. For nearly 80 of his 91 years he devoted himself to artistic production that contributed significantly to and paralleled the entire development of modern art in the 20th century. 1881 Born on October 25 in Malaga, Spain. His father, a painter, teaches drawing and is curator of local museum. 1891 Family moves to La Coruna. Studies painting and drawing under his father. 1895 Family moves to Barcelona. Becomes student at the School of Fine Arts. 1897 Admitted to Royal Academy of San Fernando, Madrid. Leaves Academy during winter. 1899 Begins to frequent the cafe, Els Quatre Gats, where he comes in contact with Barcelona intelligentsia. Creates first etching, El Zurdo. 1900 Exhibition at Els Quatre Gats. First trip to Paris. Returns to Madrid. 1901 Goes to Barcelona at end of April and Paris in May. Exhibition at Galeries Vollard. 1902 - 1903 Returns to Barcelona. Back to Paris in October 1902, where he shares a room with writer and poet, Max Jacob. In Barcelona, creates most important works of his “Blue Period”: La vie, La Celestine, The Blind Man’s Meal (1903). 1904 Moves into the Bateau-Lavoir, 13, rue Ravignan, Paris. Meets Fernande Olivier, who becomes his mistress in 1905. Important print: Le repas frugal. 1905 Three etchings exhibited at Galeries Serrurier. Meets Gertrude and Leo Stein. Beginning of the “Rose Period.” Produces 15 etchings and drypoints. Only a few impressions are pulled. Thirteen of them, added to Le repas frugal, will be used to make up Les Saltimbanques in 1913. 1906 Meets Henri Matisse and Andre Derain. Works on Chevaux au bain, paints Portrait of Gertrude Stein, Two Nudes, Seated Female Nude with Crossed Legs. L’abreuvoir drypoint to be included in Les saltimbanques. Produces first woodcut. 1907 Works on painting Les demoiselles d’Avignon. Keen interest in African sculpture. Meets art dealer Daniel-Henri Kahnweiler and George Braque. Buys small printing press. 1908 With Braque, first experimentations with Cubism. Paints Three Women, The Dryad, Friendship. 1909 First analytic cubist paintings. Sculpts pre-cubist bust of Fernande, Head of a Woman. Paintings include: Bread and Fruit Dish on a Table, The Reservoir, Horta de Ebro. Makes two small engravings on celluloid and two copperplate drypoints. 1910 Spends summer in Cadaques with Fernande and the Derains. Exhibits with Braque at the Galerie Thannhauser, Munich. Paintings: Girl with a Mandolin, Portrait of Ambroise Vollard, Portrait of Wilhelm Uhde, Portrait of Daniel-Henri Kahnweiler. Illustrations for the book Saint Matorel, by Max Jacob, published by Kahnweiler in 1911. 1911 First American exhibition at Stieglitz’s “291.” Spends last summer with Fernande in Ceret. In autumn, meets Eva Gouel at the Steins. Paintings: The Accordionist, Mandolin Player. Important print: Still Life with a Bottle of Marc, published by Kahnweiler in 1912. 1912 Works exhibited in Moscow, Munich, Barcelona, London, Berlin and Cologne. National reputation established. Transition to synthetic cubism. First cubist collages with Braque. Sculpture: Guitar. Paintings: Ma Jolie, Still Life with Chair Caning, The Aficionado. 1913 First major retrospective at Galerie Thannhauser, Munich. Eight works included in International Exhibition of Modern Art at 69th Regiment Armory, New York. Death of his father in Barcelona. Produces cubist prints. Vollard buys etchings and drypoints from 1904/05 and 1906, and publishes them in Les saltimbanques. End of 1913 - beginning of 1914: illustrations for the book Le siege de Jerusalem, by Max Jacob. 1914 - 1915 War declared on August 2, 1914. Spring of 1915, Eva’s health deteriorates. Death of Eva, December. Sculpture: constructions and The Glass of Absinthe. Produces first aquatint. 1916 Beginning of Dada movement in Zurich. Contact with Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes. Agrees to design decor and costumes for Parade (scenario by Cocteau, music by Satie). 1917 With Cocteau and the Ballets Russes in Rome. Meets Stravinsky, Bakst and dancer, Olga Koklova. Works on decor and costumes for Parade. Paints Portrait of Olga in an Armchair. 1918 - 1919 Marries Olga (July). His friend, Apollinaire, dies on November 11, 1918. Moves to 23, rue la Boetie. May - July in London with the Ballets Russes. Designs Le tricorne. Exhibits at Galerie Paul Rosenberg, Paris. Works on Pulcinella (music by Stravinsky). Etches Pierrot for Max Jacob’s book Le Phanerogame. Drypoint portrait of Olga. Produces first two lithographs. 1920 Kahnweiler returns to Paris after six years of exile in Switzerland. First performance of Pulcinella. 1921 Birth of son Paulo in February. Series of lithographs and drypoints. 1922 Jacques Doucet purchases Les demoiselles d’Avignon. Etches illustrations for Pierre Reverdy’s book Cravates de chanvre. 1923 - 1924 Meets surrealist Andre Breton. Costumes and decor for Mercure (music by Satie, choreography by Massine). Contact with surrealists. Paintings: The Pipes of Pan, Portrait of Olga, Harlequins. 1923 - 1925 Group of experimental prints. Explores theme of Les trois graces. 1925 First important surrealist exhibition in Paris includes cubist works by Picasso. Paintings: La danse, Le basier. 1926 First issue of Cahiers d’art, begun by Christian Zervos, who becomes lifelong friend. Twenty year retrospective at Galerie Paul Rosenberg. Collages: Two large Guitars. Paintings: Painter and Model, The Milliner’s Workshop. 1927 Meets Marie-Therese Walter. Spends summer in Cannes with Olga and Paulo. Illustrations for the book, Le chef-d’oeuvre inconnu by Balzac. Begins to work with Louis Fort, the printer. 1928 - 1929 First appearance of the Minotaur in his painting. Works with sculptor, Julio Gonzalez. Summers in Dinard. “Dinard period” Bathers in sculpture, drawings and paintings. Sculpture: metal constructions, Woman in a Garden. Paintings: Nude in an Armchair, Bust of a Woman with Self-Portrait. Begins illustrations for the book La Tauromaquia by Pepe Illo. 1930 - 1931 Several exhibitions in America. Acquires Chateau of Boisgeloup in 1930. Converts stables into a studio. In April 1931, major retrospective in London. Paintings: The Lamp, Figures by the Sea. Marie-Therese becomes omnipresent in the intaglio prints. September 1930 - Spring 1931: illustrations for Ovid’s Metamorphoses. Ovid and Le chef-d’oeuvre inconnu are published in autumn 1931. 1932 At Chateau de Boisgeloup. Major retrospective at Galerie George Petit, Paris, goes to Zurich Kunsthaus. Zervos publishes first volume of his Catalogue raisonne de Picasso. (Thirty-four volumes appear by 1978.) Paintings: Girl Before a Mirror, Woman with a Flower, The Dream, Bather with a Beach Ball. Sculpts monumental Boisgeloup heads of Marie-Therese (1931 - 1932). In painting, sculpture and prints: theme of Large and Small Bathers. 1933 Summer holiday in Cannes and Barcelona with Olga and Paulo. Sculpts Woman with a Vase, eventually one of bronze casts on his tomb at Vauvenargues. Works extensively on intaglio prints. Between March and November makes 60 of the plates which will be chosen to be part of the Suite Vollard. Produces prints based on Boisgeloup heads of Marie-Therese. Executes nearly 100 monotypes. Resumes work on “sculptor and his model” series and the “rapes.” In April, the Minotaur appears in his prints, and remains until March 23, 1955. Works with Lacouriere, the printer. Continues proofing plates himself. Makes collage for first issue of Minotaure, published by Teriade and Skira (four of the first Minotaur etchings reproduced). 1934 Travels with Olga and Paulo in Spain. Marie-Therese tells Picasso she is pregnant. Produces more etchings that will be part of the Suite Vollard. Theme of Marie-Therese as bullfighter begins. First sugar-lift aquatint. Begins work in Lacouriere’s workshop. Produces Blind Minotaur. 1935 Olga and Paulo leave Picasso and settle in Cannes. Divorce proceedings begin. Rosenberg prepares inventory of Picasso’s works. September 5, Marie-Therese gives birth to Maria de la Concepcion, later called Maya. In November, Sabartes returns to Paris and lives in Picasso’s apartment on rue la Boetie. Picasso describes end of the year as “the worst period of my life.” Paints group of Muses. The Minotauromachia (March 23) printed at end of year. 1936 Meets writer Paul Eluard, beginning of long friendship. Has 32 works from 1907 - 1929 included in the exhibition, “Cubism and Abstract Art,” at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, organized by Alfred Barr, Jr. Meets photographer Dora Maar. At Juan-les-Pins with Marie-Therese and Maya in April. Spanish Civil War breaks out in July. Because of his anti-Franco stance, Republicans name Picasso Director of the Prado Museum, Madrid. Summer in Mougins. Sees Dora Maar. Makes 32 sugar-lift aquatints to illustrate Buffon’s book Histoire naturelle. Produces Faune devoilant une femme, the most important print of the the Suite Vollard. Provides illustrations for Paul Eluard’s La barre d’appui and Les yeux fertiles. The Minotauromachie is reproduced in Cahiers d’art. 1937 With Dora Maar’s help, finds new studio at 7, rue des Grands Augustins, Paris. Spanish Republican government invites Picasso to create mural for Spanish Pavilion in the Paris World’s Fair. Germans bomb Guernica, Spain (April 26). Picasso chooses bombing of this Basque village as theme for Pavilion painting. Summer with Dora Maar in Mougins. Begins two etchings on the Sueno y mentira de Franco. More prints for the Suite Vollard. 1938 Summer in Mougins with Dora Maar and the Eluards. Visits Zervos in Vezelay. Important aquatint, Woman with a Tambourine. Begins work with the writer/publisher Iliazd: illustrations for Afat. Works on other book illustrations. 1939 Death of Picasso’s mother. Guernica exhibited in America, where it remained until its return to Spain in 1981. Death of editor Ambroise Vollard. Summers in Antibes with Dora Maar. World War II breaks out in September. Painting: Night Fishing in Antibes. Spends three months in Lacouriere’s workshop. Makes seven portraits of Dora Maar, each in four or five colors on four or five copperplates. First linocut in spring. 1940 - 1944 From 1939 to 1944, travels between Royan and Paris. Writes farcical play, Le desir attrape par la queue. Works in sculpture studio at rue des Grands Augustins. Meets painter Francoise Gilot (Spring1943). Death of Max Jacob (March 5, 1944). Liberation of Paris (August 25, 1944). Sculptures: Dora Maar’s Head (1941), Man with a Sheep (1944). Painting: The Charnel House (1944 - 45). Little graphic work in this period. First idea for sculpture, L’homme au mouton, appears in unpublished print dated July 14, 1942. In 1942, Lacouriere prints Le femme au tambourin and seven color aquatints of Dora Maar. 1945 - 1946 Germany surrenders on May 7, 1945. Picasso spends summer with Dora Maar in Antibes. In autumn, begins to live with Francoise Gilot. In 1946, summers in Antibes and lives in Louis Fort’s house in Golfe-Juan. Francoise becomes pregrant. Picasso paints mural Joie de vivre, for Musee d’Antibes. Death of Gertrude Stein (July 27, 1946). Picasso begins to work in Mourlot’s lithography workshop. 1947 Birth of Claude in May. Makes about 200 ceramics in Vallauris. Continues working in Mourlot’s workshop on David and Bathsheba. Illustrations for the books Pismo, Dos Contes, Gongora. 1948 Moves to Vallauris with Francoise. He and Eluard attend Congress of Intellectuals for Peace in Poland. Exhibition of 149 ceramics at Maison de la Pensee Francaise, Paris. Group of lithographs depicting Francoise wearing Polish coat. Illustrations for the books Carmen, Corps perdu (1948 - 1949). 1949 Birth of Paloma, Francoise’s second child. Works on ceramics and sculpture including Pregnant Woman. Prints: Venus and Cupid, after Cranach. More lithographs including La colombe de la paix (poster for Peace Congress). 1950 - 1951 In Vallauris. Attends Second World Peace Congress in England. Receives Lenin Peace Prize. Returns to Paris in autumn with family. Paints Les demoiselles des bords de la Seine, d’apres Courbet. Sculpture: She Goat, Girl Jumping Rope, Woman with Baby Carriage, Baboon and Young. Illustration for Iliazd’s book La maigre by Adrian de Montluc. 1952 Transforms old chapel in Vallauris into a temple of peace. Death of Eluard. Sculpture: The Crane. Print: La femme a la fenetre. Other large aquatints in Lacouriere’s workshop. 1953 Last summer in Vallauris with Francoise. In September she leaves with the children. Picasso meets Jacqueline Roque. Portraits of Francoise with Claude and Paloma in lithographs and etchings. 1954 Many drawings during winter of 1953 - 1954. In autumn, begins to live with Jacqueline, his future wife. 1955 Death of Olga. Buys villa, La Californie, in Cannes. Film “Le mystere Picasso” by Clouzot. Retrospective at Musee des Arts Decoratifs, Paris. Group of prints in September. Illustrations for Iliazd’s book, Chevaux de minuits by Roch Grey (1955 - 56). Begins work on linocuts with Arnera. 1956 In Cannes. Celebrates 75th birthday. Protests Russian intervention in Hungary. From 1956 until his death in 1973, creates numerous portraits of Jacqueline. 1957 Paints many versions of Las meninas, after Velasquez, which were given to the Museo Picasso, Barcelona. Louis Fort’s press set up in La Californie. Picasso makes sugar-lift aquatints for the book, La tauromaqia by Pepe Illo. 1958 In Cannes. Buys Chateau of Vauvenargues near Aix-en-Provence. First published linocut: Buste de femme, d’apres Cranach le jeune, in five colors. Works for Iliazd’s book Le frere mendiant. 1959 - 1960 In Cannes and Vauvenargues. Retrospective at Tate Gallery, London (1960). Begins work on sheet metal sculptures. Uses new linocut technique (1960): Frelaut pulls trial proofs of large group of plates brought from Paris. 1961 Marries Jacqueline. Moves into villa, Notre Dame-de-Vie, at Mougins. Remains there until end of his life. Frelaut pulls impressions of group of prints known as La caisse a remords (edited 1981). Makes few unpublished prints. Portrait of Jacqueline as a Bride. 1962 Exhibition: “Picasso, an American Tribute” at nine New York art galleries. Important linocuts: Dejeuner sur l’herbe, d’apres Manet, heads of Jacqueline, The Lamp. 1963 The Crommelynck brothers settle in Mougins and set up fully equipped printmaking workshop. In autumn, Picasso works on intaglio prints again. Produces over 100 versions of The Painter and his Model (1963 - 1966). 1964 Retrospective exhibitions in Toronto and Tokyo. Dabber-inked aquatints: The Smokers. “Rinsed” linocuts. 1965 Last trip to Paris, where he undergoes an operation. More works on theme of the painter and his model. Discovers “solid varnish” to apply on aquatint-grained copperplates. 1966 Exhibiton: “Hommage a Picasso” held in Grand Palais and Petit Palais, Paris. Illustrations for books, Le cocu magnifique and El entierro del Conde de Orgaz. Group of important intaglio prints. Death of Roger Lacouriere. 1967 Evicted from studio on rue des Grands Augustins. Exhibition of sculpture and ceramics at Tate Gallery, London. 1968 Death of Sabartes in February. Produces Suite 347, exhibited at Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris. 1969 Paints about 170 works. His book, El entierro del Conde de Orgaz, is published. 1970 Exhibition in Palais des Papes, Avignon. Death of friends Christian and Yvonne Zervos. “Avignon Period” paintings (1970 - 1971). Intensive work (1970 - beginning 1972) leads to the Suite 156 published after his death. At the same time Venus and Cupid (1949) and Portrait of Miss Angela Rosengart (1966) were published. All but four of the prints marked with stamp reproducing Picasso’s signature. 1971 Picasso’s 90th birthday. 1972 “Picasso in the Collection of the Museum of Modern Art” exhibition, New York. Exhibition of 172 recent drawings at Galerie Louise Leiris, Paris. Makes his last two etchings. 1973 Following a brief illness, Pablo Picasso dies on April 8 in Mougins, and is buried on the grounds of Chateau of Vauvenargues. Exhibition at Palais des Papes, Avignon. Last group of the Suite 156 (with all the states) exhibited at Galerie Louise Leiris.

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